Mexico

United States

Canada

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

 

1What is Democracy Web?

Democracy Web is an online resource for teachers and students that provides a philosophical and factual overview of the principles of democracy and their origins, as well as country studies that examine how a variety of contemporary political systems function with respect to these principles. The goal is to give students a better understanding of democracy through the comparative study of a wide array of countries.

Democracy Web was developed by the Albert Shanker Institute with the human rights organization Freedom House and was originally posted in 2009. Democracy Web is designed for use with upper secondary-level and lower college-level students, but teachers at lower secondary-level and even middle school levels have also found it useful, as have civic and human rights activists around the world. There have been millions of individual users of the Democracy Web site since its launch.  The site is being updated to keep it current with world events.

2.    How Do I Use Democracy Web?

Democracy Web includes a study guide and an interactive world map based on Freedom House’s annual Survey of Freedom in the World, which is color coded to correspond with its classification of countries as Free, Partly Free, or Not Free.

The Study Guide is composed of units, or sections, that focus on a key principle of democracy used in Freedom House’s measurements for its annual study. Originally, there were 12 such categories in Freedom House's methodology and Democracy Web is designed around these categories to form 12 separate units to the study guide: (1) consent of the governed, (2) free and fair elections, (3) constitutional limits, (4) majority rule/minority rights, (5) accountability, (6) multiparty systems, (7) economic freedom, (8) rule of law, (9) human rights, (10) freedom of expression, (11) freedom of association, and (12) freedom of religion.

Each unit of the Study Guide includes a discussion of that category’s Essential Principles and History and then includes three Country Studies that represent a Free, Partly Free, and Not Free country to show how that section’s principle works in practice. All of this content can be reached through the Study Guide tab and through specific country searches (through the Countries tab). We recommend beginning with the Essential Principles section, but teachers and students may also explore the connections from multiple angles. Extensive Resource lists and ideas for Study Questions are also included in each category section. See "How To Use This Site" for more information.

The interactive map allows users to click on any country to access its basic information, as well as link to that country's annual Survey of Freedom in the World report and additional surveys, country assessments, or special reports published by Freedom House. Users can also find the Country Studies for the 34 countries selected for study within the Democracy Web.

3.  Does Democracy Web Have a Curriculum or Lesson Plans

At present, no. Democracy Web is designed as an on-line resource to supplement classes in American and world history, social studies, civics, and political science.  There are Study Questions within each unit relating to the Essential Princples, History, and three Country Studies. The Study Questions offer specific suggestions for exploring topics and making assignments, but not  lesson plans. The Albert Shanker Institute encourages teachers to develop specific lesson plans around the Study Guide’s different units or around study of specific countries or a set of countries. If teachers do develop lesson plans, please share them with the Albert Shanker Institute through Contact Us or by emailing directly [email protected]. We will post them on this site with proper attribution.  

One organization, Tavanaa has translated Democracy Web into Persian and developed specific lesson plans for each of the units for online courses aimed at Iranian civic activists, teachers, and students. An English-language page describes its Democracy Web lesson plans (link).

4.    What is Freedom in the World?

Freedom in the World is the annual comparative survey of political rights and civil liberties around the globe carried out by the human rights organization Freedom House. The Freedom in the World Survey has been published since 1973. The survey examines the extent to which democratic rights and freedoms are enjoyed in all countries and territories in the world and categorizes those countries and territories as “Free,” “Partly Free,” and “Not Free.” These designations are made according to a ranking system of 1-7. The survey bases its judgments on a series of criteria that give separate scores for a country's level of political rights and its array of civil liberties, resulting in the overall designation of each country. As a companion to the survey, Freedom House publishes an annual Map of Freedom, which is color coded to show the freedom designation of each country. The annual report materials (downloads, map, table, and methodology) are available through the Freedom in the World web page).

5.    How Does Freedom House Score Countries?

Originally, the annual survey used 12 categories of freedom, which is the basis for the units of the study guide. Currently, it uses 10 measurements for political liberties and 15 for civil liberties that correspond to these 12 cateogries. Freedom House assesses each country’s performance according to determinations made each year by country experts and a panel of evaluators. See link for a full description of the methodology.

6.    For whom is Democracy Web intended?

Democracy Web is intended as a study guide for history, social studies, government, and civics teachers of upper secondary-level and lower college-level students. However, lower-secondary and even middle school teachers have also used Democracy Web in their classes. Teachers should encourage their students to use the interactive map or build lesson plans around the map and study guide. 

7.    What is the funding for Democracy Web?

The Albert Shanker Institute and Freedom House received a joint grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities for the original core funding for this project to develop the initial web page, launched in 2009. It is currently a project of the Albert Shanker, which has provided additional funding for maintaining and updating the contents of the site. The content of the site is the responsibility of the Albert Shanker Institute and does not necessarily reflect the views of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

8.    If I have more questions or want more information on Democracy Web, who should I contact?

Please contact us at: [email protected].

About the Authors

Danielle Allen, the author of the introduction to the study guide ("What is Democracy?"), is Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University and professor in Harvard’s Department of Government and Graduate School of Education. She is a political theorist who has published broadly in democratic theory, political sociology, and the history of political thought. Her most recent books are Our Declaration: A Reading of the Declaration of Independence in Defense of Equality (2014), and Education and Equality (2016). Her monthly column on politics appears in The Washington Post.

Eric Chenoweth is the principal author of the Democracy Web study guide. Mr. Chenoweth was co-founder of the Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe (IDEE), which was established in 1985, and has served as its co-director since 1994. IDEE provided assistance to the dissident and human rights movements that brought about the democracy revolutions of 1989-91 and since that time it has helped civic and political activists in the region try to achieve and institutionalize democracy and overcome communism's oppressive legacy (see http://idee-us.org and www.idee.org). From 1987 to 1993, Mr. Chenoweth worked in the International Affairs Departments of the American Federation of Teachers and the AFL-CIO and was responsible for the AFT's Education for Democracy/International project. Since 2005, Mr. Chenoweth has also been a consultant for the Albert Shanker Institute working on a variety of projects, including as author of Democracy’s Champion: Albert Shanker and the International Impact of the AFT.

Mr. Chenoweth was editor-in-chief of Uncaptive Minds (1988-97) and his articles on democracy and democracy movements have appeared in many languages in a wide range of opinion pages and journals, including American Educator and American Teacher. He graduated in 1985 from Columbia College in political science. 

About Freedom in the World


The Freedom in the World survey is an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in every country and most territories in the world published by Freedom House, an organization formed in 1941 as a bipartisan citizens' response to meet the threats of totalitarianism and impending war. In the 1950s, Freedom House began to produce a "Balance Sheet of Freedom," which then developed into "The Comparative Study of Freedom." Since 1973, Freedom House began a more formal global study that is widely recognized as an authoritative resource on the state of human rights, democracy and freedom in the world. The Freedom in the World survey measures freedom in two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. Political rights allow people to join political parties and organizations, compete for public office, vote freely for distinct alternative candidates in legitimate elections, and elect representatives who have a real impact on public policies and are accountable to voters. Civil liberties allow freedoms of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law and due process, and personal autonomy, including economic freedom, without interference from the state. Freedom can be affected by both the government and nongovernmental forces, including armed rebel groups, organized crime, and powerful business interests.

The original surveys measured 12 broad categories of political rights and civil liberties. These are the basis of the 12 units of Democracy Web (consent of the governed, free elections, constitutonal limits, majority rule and minority rights, transparency and accountability, a multiparty system, economic freedom, rule of law, and freedoms of expression, association, and religion). The survey has broadened its methodology and now includes 10 measurements for political rights and 15 for civil liberties, but all relate to the original 12 categories used in Democracy Web. The standards that Freedom in the World uses to measure freedom are based largely on the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a document that represents the first global expression of rights to which everyone is entitled. (Eleanor Roosevelt, a founding member of Freedom House, presided as chairman of the UN Commission on Human Rights that drafted the UN Declaration.) These standards are applied to all countries, regardless of their geographical location, ethnic or religious composition, culture, or level of economic development.

Ratings Process

The survey includes both analytical reports and numerical ratings for 193 countries (as well as a select group of territories). The ratings are based on points awarded for each of 25 questions, which are divided into 10 questions on political rights and 15 questions on civil liberties. The topics of these questions include independence of the media, religious freedom, corruption, the right of political parties to function, independence of the judicial system, and women's rights. There are several steps in the ratings process:

    • First, for each of the 25 questions, the country in question is awarded 0 to 4 points, with 0 representing the worst possible conditions and 4 representing the best.

    • Second, all of the points are added up to obtain a total for political rights and a total for civil liberties.

    • Third, the country is assigned two numerical ratings — on a scale of 1 to 7 — based on the totals for political rights and civil liberties. For example, a country that receives between 36 and 40 total points for the 10 political rights questions would get a political rights rating of 1, while a country that receives between 30 and 35 total points would get a rating of 2. A rating of 1 indicates the highest level of freedom and 7 the lowest level of freedom.

    • Fourth, the political rights and civil liberties ratings are averaged to determine whether a country is classified as Free, Partly Free, or Not Free. Countries whose two ratings average between 1.0 and 2.5 are Free, those between 3.0 and 5.0 are Partly Free, and those between 5.5 and 7.0 are Not Free. A designation of Free does not mean that a country enjoys perfect freedom or lacks serious problems. It simply indicates that the country enjoys more freedom than Partly Free and Not Free (and sometimes other Free) countries.

Characteristics of Political Rights And Civil Liberties Rating

Below are a generalized description of the overall ratings measurements (1-7) for political rights and civil liberties. A fuller discussion of the methodology can be found at Freedom House's web site at the following link. The 2016 Survey may be found here.

Political Rights

Rating of 1 – Countries with a rating of 1 enjoy a wide range of political rights, including free and fair elections. Candidates who are elected actually rule, political parties are competitive, the opposition plays an important role and enjoys real power, and minority groups have reasonable self-government or can participate in the government through informal consensus.

Rating of 2 – Countries with a rating of 2 have slightly weaker political rights than those with a rating of 1 because of such factors as some political corruption, limits on the functioning of political parties and opposition groups, and foreign or military influence on politics.

Ratings of 3, 4, or 5 – Countries with a rating of 3, 4, or 5 include those that moderately protect almost all political rights and those that more strongly protect some political rights while less strongly protecting others. The same factors that undermine freedom in countries with a rating of 2 may also weaken political rights in those with a rating of 3, 4, or 5, but to a greater extent at each successive rating.

Rating of 6 – Countries with a rating of 6 have heavily restricted political rights. They are ruled by one-party or military dictatorships, religious hierarchies, or autocrats. They may allow a few political rights, such as some representation or autonomy for minority groups, and a few are traditional monarchies that tolerate political discussion and accept public petitions.

Rating of 7 – Countries with a rating of 7 have few or no political rights because of severe government oppression, sometimes in combination with civil war. They may also lack an authoritative and functioning central government and suffer from extreme violence or warlord rule that dominates political power.

Civil Liberties

Rating of 1 – Countries with a rating of 1 enjoy a wide range of civil liberties, including freedoms of expression, assembly, association, education, and religion. They have an established and generally fair legal system (including an independent judiciary), allow free economic activity, and tend to strive for equality of opportunity for everyone, including women and minority groups.

Rating of 2 – Countries with a rating of 2 have slightly weaker civil liberties than those with a rating of 1 because of such factors as some limits on media independence, restrictions on trade union activities, and discrimination against minority groups and women.

Ratings of 3, 4, or 5 – Countries with a rating of 3, 4, or 5 include those that moderately protect almost all civil liberties and those that more strongly protect some civil liberties while less strongly protecting others. The same factors that undermine freedom in countries with a rating of 2 may also weaken civil liberties in those with a rating of 3, 4, or 5, but to a greater extent at each successive rating.

Rating of 6 – Countries with a rating of 6 have heavily restricted civil liberties. They strongly limit the rights of expression and association, and there are almost always political prisoners. They may allow a few civil liberties, such as some religious and social freedoms, some highly restricted private business activity, and relatively free private discussion.

Rating of 7  Countries with a rating of 7 have few or no civil liberties. They allow virtually no freedom of expression or association, law enforcement officials do not protect the rights of detainees and prisoners, and the state controls or dominates most economic activity.

 

About This Site

About Democracy Web

In 1987, the American Federation of Teachers, Freedom House, and the Educational Excellence Network cosponsored the release of Education for Democracy, a statement of principles that received wide media attention and was endorsed by a broad array of prominent Americans—including Jimmy Carter, George Will, Bayard Rustin, Gerald Ford, Liv Ullmann, Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, Norman Lear, and Norman Podhoretz. It called on our schools to "purposely impart to their students the learning necessary for an informed, reasoned allegiance to the ideals of a free society," arguing that "democracy's survival depends upon our transmitting to each new generation the political vision of liberty and equality that unites us as Americans." It continued,

 

Such values are neither revealed truths nor natural habits. There is no evidence that we are born with them. Devotion to human dignity and freedom, to equal rights, to social and economic justice, to the rule of law, to civility and truth, to tolerance of diversity, to mutual assistance, to personal and civic responsibility, to self-restraint and self-respect—all these must be taught and learned and practiced.

 

The 1987 statement and an updated and expanded version, released in 2003 by the Albert Shanker Institute on the second anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks, argued that the story of democracy should be taught as a major theme not just in American history, but in much of world history and social studies. Indeed, said the authors, "the great central drama of modern history has been and continues to be the struggle to establish, preserve, and extend democracy—at home and abroad." Both documents argued that all students must be provided with a full and fair accounting of the strengths and failings of democratic societies. But it is equally important, they said, that students are provided with a clear picture of the alternatives against which democracy can be measured.

The systematic presentation of reality abroad must be an integral part of the curriculum. What are the political systems in competition with our own, and what is life like for the people under them?

Sadly, most secondary-school textbooks are little help in this regard.

Freedom House has long been a valuable source of accurate information with which to fill this gap. Freedom in the World, its annual comparative survey, documents the range of political systems in the world and the extent to which democratic rights and freedoms are enjoyed by those who live under them. The survey bases its judgments on a series of criteria that give separate scores for a country's level of political rights and its array of civil liberties, and each country receives an overall designation as Free, Partly Free, or Not Free. As a companion to the survey, Freedom House publishes an annual Map of Freedom, which is color coded to show the freedom designation of each country.

Over the past few years, the American Federation of Teachers and Freedom House have periodically worked together to distribute free copies of the Map of Freedom to any history or social studies teachers who request them. The demand has been overwhelming. Many thousands of teachers have asked for copies of the map, which they praise as a uniquely useful teaching tool for courses on global politics. Democracy Web was designed to take advantage of and expand upon this resource.

Freedom House and the Albert Shanker Institute have developed Democracy Web's background and resource materials to help teachers get much more use out of the annual survey and map. The materials center on an informational website and teachers' study guide for use with secondary- and college-level students—those who are just commencing their roles as citizens. An interactive version of the map is a key feature of the website. By clicking on a particular country, a teacher or student can gain access to the variety of surveys, country assessments, and special reports published by Freedom House. For example, a student with an interest in Saudi Arabia can access (1) a profile of the country attached to the study-guide section on the rule of law, (2) the most recent annual country report in Freedom in the World, (3) a Freedom House report on education in the country, (4) an annual report on press freedom in Saudi Arabia, and (5) a report on the status of Saudi women's rights.

The study guide is divided into two sections: an extended essay on the basic history and architecture of democracy, and a series of chapters that examine the core institutions of democracy and provide a comparative analysis of rights and freedoms in specific countries. The essay, "A Short Historical Sketch on the Idea of Freedom" by political scientist James P. Young, attempts to provide some political and historical context for the complex topic of freedom. Each of the chapters that follow focuses on a separate theme, examining the key concepts and mechanisms that allow the ideals of freedom and democracy to work in practice: consent of the governed, elections, constitutional limits, majority rule and minority rights, accountability, multiparty systems, economic freedom, rule of law, human rights, freedom of expression, freedom of association, and freedom of religion. The country analyses that accompany each thematic chapter are drawn from the basic framework of Freedom in the World, and reflect a wide variety of democratic achievement as well as regional and cultural diversity. The idea is to be able to access the website's content using multiple routes, whether through specific country searches or by beginning with the philosophical roots of modern democracy. Teachers and students can reach information and explore connections by going in either direction. Extensive resource lists and ideas for further study are also included.

Freedom House and the Albert Shanker Institute are grateful to the National Endowment for the Humanities for providing the core funding for this project. The views, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed on this website do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment of Humanities. We would also like to thank the expert advisers, educational practitioners, and staff specialists who assisted in the development of Democracy Web materials.

 

Freedom of Religion: Study Questions

 

Suggested Study Questions and Activities

Teachers: The following are questions and activities that can be given to your students after they read the materials in each section. The questions are meant to be asked as a review exercise, although some encourage critical thinking as well. The activities can be presented as classroom exercises or as individual homework assignments. Unlike the questions, they tend to require additional research. Some call for students to create mock trials or debates that would engage the entire class. Both the questions and the activities are formatted so that they might be used directly by students, although you may rewrite them as you feel necessary.

Essential Principles

Questions

What were the most important developments for freedom of religion in Europe? How did the essential elements of religious freedom develop? Is formal separation of religion and state necessary to religious freedom or is religious freedom possible where a state religion is recognized?

Activity

Many of the countries selected for this study guide have significant or majority Muslim populations (France, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey). They offer a variety of models for the relationship between Islam and the state. Is there a correlation of religious freedom and Freedom House’s categorization of Free, Partly Free, and Free Countries? In which countries are there a state religion? Is Sharia practiced? Does it have formal sanction as state law? How are Muslims and non-Muslims treated under Sharia? Do non-Muslims have freedom of religion or are they discriminated against? What do the comparisons tell you about the practice of freedom of religion in Muslim countries?

United States

Questions

The United States has adherents of just about every known religion living within its borders. Has it protected the rights of all? If so, how has this been accomplished? Are there ever conflicts between religious groups in the United States? What circumstances have led to religious friction?

How did the United States change to reflect its constitutional premise of separation of church and state and unhindered freedom of belief? What branch of government had more to do with expanding religious freedom?

What periods in US history have seen religious discrimination? What religions have experienced discrimination? How? Review current events in the US (e.g. regarding the presidential election campaign, Supreme Court cases, issues that involve religious liberty). Has there been expression of bigotry towards religious groups? How does it compare to previous expressions and practices in the US?

Activities

Using the Resource links, review some of the Supreme Court decisions discussed in the Country Study. What questions concerning religious freedom does the country face today? Find majority and dissenting decisions in these cases as well as an article discussing one recent Supreme Court case regarding the establishment of religion (e.g. the Texas monument case). Take a position in the case (majority/dissenting).  Defend your position.

To address one of the most current cases, assign students to read Linda Greenhouse’s OpEd article in the The New York Times “Hobby Lobby in Context” (July 9, 2014). What issues were raised in this case and other cases related to the Affordable Care Act? What other cases does Linda Greenhouse cite? How is the Supreme Court ruling in such cases and what are the majority’s reasons? Is the Supreme Court “changing direction” to accommodate religious practices? How do these cases differ from earlier cases?

Nigeria

Questions

In Nigeria’s history, was there religious freedom before independence? After independence? How does the adoption of Sharia law in 12 of 36 states in Nigeria affect freedom of religion? Does the application of Sharia, in civil or criminal cases, necessarily contradict the principles of freedom of religion? What recourses are there to a Sharia court ruling? Is the exclusion of Sharia from official courts itself a violation of religious freedom, as claimed by some Muslim leaders in Nigeria?

Activities

Compare the section on Nigeria with the country study of Saudi Arabia (chapter 8, "Rule of Law"). Discuss what are the consequences of establishing religious law as the state's law? Review the History and US sections. What other current or historical examples can students find to illustrate these dangers?

Review articles relating to the rise of fundamentalist movements Boko Haram and Ansaru. Discuss the threat to religious freedom and to general freedoms posed by such extremism. Have students research the response of the Nigerian government to these religious extremist movements and read Nicolas Kristof’s Op-ed article “What Is So Scary about Smart Girls?” in the The New York Times. Discuss what approaches are likely to be effective in combatting Boko Haram?

Vietnam

Questions

How was religious freedom observed before and after the 1954 Geneva Agreement that divided the country into South and North Vietnam? What was the influence of China’s imperial control on religious freedom? Of Vietnam’s dynastic emperors? Of French colonial administration? How does the Vietnamese government today justify the controls it imposes on religion? How successful has it been in manipulating religion to serve the state? What independent religious groups are there in Vietnam? Can they practice their religion freely?

Activity

Compare Nigeria and Vietnam Country Studies. Are there any similarities between Vietnam's state-imposed religious practices and the newly adopted Sharia statutes in Nigeria's northern, mostly Muslim states? What are the differences? How are Vietnam’s practices similar to other communist countries? Include research from the Resource section and the internet.

The Vietnamese government proposed a new law on religion in 2015. Will this improve religious freedom in Vietnam? Look at the different links in Resources to see how this law is being considered by human rights organizations, the Economist, and The New York Times.

Freedom of Religion: Resources

Resources

Essential Principles

Basic Readings in U.S. Democracy. InfoUSA, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC. (Home Page)
     "Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom," with Backgrounder (link).

Religious Freedom Web Page. “Court Decisions.” Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, 2001.
     See also the main site of the Religious Freedom Page at http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "The Four Freedoms." Speech before U.S. Congress, January 6, 1941.
     See also American Rhetoric home page.

Marshall, Paul and Shea, Nina. Silenced: How Apostasy and Blasphemy Codes Are Choking Freedom Worldwide (Oxford University Press: 2011).

Pew Research Center. The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics, and Society. April 2013.

Vermeulen, Ben. "The Historical Development of Religious Freedom." Lecture. April 1998.

UN General Assembly. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted December 16, 1966.

U.S. State Department
     Office of International Religious Freedom, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
     International Religious Freedom Report. See links for Annual Reports.

United States

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See "Religious Freedom in the United States of America," in ICRF country reports listed by continent (link).

Jefferson, Thomas. “Letter to the Danbury Baptists (1802).” Library of Congress. Etext.

Kraft, Emilie. "Ten Commandments Monument Controversy." Encyclopedia of Alabama, May 12, 2008.

Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic." July 23, 2010.

National Archives (link).
     Charters of Freedom (links to U.S. Constitution for Article VI and First Amendment). See also Teachers’ Resources.

Pew Research Center.
     America’s Changing Religious Landscape. May 2015.
     US Becoming Less Religious. November 2015.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. "How Religion in the United States Avails Itself of Democratic Tendencies."   Chapter 5. Democracy in America, volume II, 1835.

The New York Times.
     “Reading Hobby Lobby in Context,” Oped by Linda Greenhouse, July 9, 2014.

U.S. Supreme Court Decisions (see FindLaw: U.S. Supreme Court for general reference)
     Abington v. Schempp, 347 U.S. 203 (1963). Case on school prayer.
     Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971). Case on state funding for nonpublic schools.
     Moore v. Glassroth, 335 F.3d 1282 (11th cir. 2003). Case involving Ten Commandments monument in Alabama state courthouse.

Nigeria

Economist magazine. Topics Index: Nigeria. See, e.g.:
     "Nigeria: Africa’s New Number One,” April 10, 2014.

The New York Times. Times Topics: Nigeria. See, e.g.:
     "Boko Harem Ranked Ahead of ISIS as Deadliest Terror Group for 2014.” November 21, 2015.
     “Nigerian President Escalates Campaign to Stem Corruption.” October 19, 2015.
     “In Nigeria, An Election To Believe In.” Op-Ed. April 9, 2015.
     “Tales of Escapees in Nigeria Add to Worries About Other Kidnapped Girls,” May 14, 2014.
    
Rights Group Says Data Suggests Mass Shootings in Nigeria,” March 31, 2014.

     Oped
     "What's So Scary About Smart Girls" by Nicholas Kristof. May 11, 2014

Fund for Peace. Failed States Index: Nigeria: Country Data and Trends.

Human Rights Watch: 2016 World Report: Nigeria. See also Human Rights in Nigeria country page.

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See, "Religious Freedom in Nigeria," inICRF country reports listed by continent.

Sahara Reporters. Independent reporting on Nigeria and Africa (link).

Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP).

U.S. Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report (link). Select year and drop down menu for countries and regions to link to Nigeria.

Vietnam

Economist magazine. Topics Index: Vietnam.
     “Reptilian Maneuvers: A Colourful Prime Minister Goes as the Gray Men Stay.” January 26, 2016.
     “Religion in Vietnam: Higher Powers.” September 26, 2015.

The New York Times. World Topics: Vietnam
     "Vietnam’s Communist Party Gives Old-Guard Leader a New 5-Year Term.”
January 27, 2016.
    
“Kerry Tells Vietnam That US Ties Will Deepen if Human Rights Are Respected.” August 7, 2015.
     "
In Hard Times, Open Dissent and Repression Rise in Vietnam,” April 23, 2013.

Electronic Frontier Foundation. “Threats to Internet Freedom on the Rise in Vietnam.” Eva Galperin. September 12, 2012.

Human Rights Watch: 2016 World Report: Vietnam. See also Human Rights in Vietnam country page.

International Coalition for Religious Freedom. See "Religious Freedom in Vietnam" incountry reports listed by continent.

UN Council on Human Rights. Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief. 
     Home Page and Country Visit Reports (see links to 2014 Country Visit to Vietnam).

U.S. Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report (link). Select year and drop down menu for countries and regions to link to Vietnam.

 

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